References

Alt, James E., 1979, The politics of economic decline: Economic management and political behaviour in Britain since 1964, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge; New York. [External LinkGoogle Books].
Anderson, Christopher, 1995, Blaming the Government: Citizens and the Economy in Five European Democracies, M.E. Sharpe, New York. [External LinkGoogle Books].
Anderson, Christopher J. and Ward, Daniel S., 1996, “Barometer elections in comparative perspective”, Electoral Studies, 15(4): 447–460, [External LinkDOI].
Arnold, Christine and Pennings, Paul, 2009, “Party Positions on the European Constitution During the 2004 European Parliament Elections”, Journal of Contemporary European Research, 5(1): 24–42. URL (accessed 6 December 2010):
External Linkhttp://www.jcer.net/.
Belluati, Marinella and Bobba, Guiliano, 2010, “European elections in Italian media: between second order campaign and the construction of a European public sphere”, CEU Political Science Journal, 5(2): 160–186.
Bellucci, Paolo, 2010, “Election cycles and electoral forecasting in Italy, 1994–2008”, International Journal of Forecasting, 26(1): 54–67, [External LinkDOI].
Benoit, Kenneth and Laver, Michael, 2006, Party Policy in Modern Democracies, Routledge, Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon; New York. [External LinkGoogle Books].
Bertrand, Alfred, 1975, “1975-1976 Session: Report of the Proceedings from 7 to 11 July 1975”, Official Journal of the European Communities: Debates of the European Parliament, EC Publications Office, Luxembourg.
Blondel, Jean, Sinnott, Richard and Svensson, Palle, 1997, “Representation and voter participation”, European Journal of Political Research, 32(2): 243–272, [External LinkDOI].
Blondel, Jean, Sinnott, Richard and Svensson, Palle, 1998, People and Parliament in the European Union: Participation, Democracy, and Legitimacy, Oxford University Press, Oxford; New York. [External LinkGoogle Books].
Campbell, Angus, 1960, “Surge and Decline: A Study of Electoral Change”, Public Opinion Quarterly, 24(3): 397–418, [External LinkDOI].
Campbell, James E., 1997, The Presidential Pulse of Congressional Elections, University Press of Kentucky, Lexington, 2nd edn. [External LinkGoogle Books].
Carrubba, Cliff and Timpone, Richard J., 2005, “Explaining vote switching across first- and second-order elections: Evidence from Europe”, Comparative Political Studies, 38(3): 260–281, [External LinkDOI].
Coultrap, John, 1999, “From parliamentarism to pluralism: Models of democracy and the European Union’s ‘democratic deficit”’, Journal of Theoretical Politics, 11(1): 107–135, [External LinkDOI].
Curtice, John, 1989, “The 1989 European Election: protest or green tide”, Electoral Studies, 8(3): 217–230, [External LinkDOI].
Cutts, David, Ford, Robert and Goodwin, Matthew J., 2010, “Anti-immigrant, politically disaffected or still racist after all? Examining the attitudinal drivers of extreme right support in Britain in the 2009 European elections”, European Journal of Political Research, in press, [External LinkDOI].
Dahl, Robert A., 1956, A Preface to Democratic Theory, University of Chicago Press, Chicago. [External LinkGoogle Books].
Dahl, Robert A., 1971, Polyarchy: Participation and Opposition, Yale University Press, New Haven.
de la Malène, Christian, 1975, “1974-1975 Session: Report of Proceedings from 13 to 17 January 1975”, Official Journal of the European Communities: Debates of the European Parliament, EC Publications Office, Luxembourg.
de Vreese, Claes H., 2003, “Television Reporting of Second-Order Elections”, Journalism Studies, 4 (2): 183–198, [External LinkDOI].
de Vreese, Claes H., Banducci, Susan A., Semetko, Holli A. and Boomgaarden, Hajo G., 2006, “The news coverage of the 2004 European parliamentary election campaign in 25 countries”, European Union Politics, 7(4): 477–504, [External LinkDOI].
de Vreese, Claes H., Banducci, Susan A., Semetko, Holli A. and Boomgaarden, Hajo G., 2007a, “The news coverage of the 2004 European Parliamentary Election Campaign in 25 countries”, in European Elections after Eastern Enlargement: Preliminary Results from the European Election Study 2004, (Eds.) Marsh, Michael, Mikhaylov, Slava, Schmitt, Hermann, vol. 1 of The CONNEX Report Series, pp. 17–52, CONNEX, Mannheim. URL (accessed 3 December 2010):
External Linkhttp://www.connex-network.org/series/.
de Vreese, Claes H., Lauf, Edmund and Peter, Jochen, 2007b, “The Media and European Parliament Elections: second-rate coverrage of a second-order event?”, in European Elections & Domestic Politics: Lessons from the Past and Scenarios for the Future, (Eds.) van der Brug, Wouter, van der Eijk, Cees, pp. 116–131, University of Notre Dame Press, Notre Dame.
de Vries, Catherine E., 2007, “Sleeping Giant: Fact or Fairytale? Examining the Impact of European Integration on National Elections in Denmark and the Netherlands”, European Union Politics, 8 (3): 363–385.
de Vries, Catherine E., 2009, “The Impact of EU Referenda on National Electoral Politics: Evidence from the Dutch Case”, West European Politics, 32(1): 142–171, [External LinkDOI].
de Vries, Catherine E., 2010, “EU Issue Voting: Asset or Liability? How European Integration Affects Parties’ Electoral Fortunes”, European Union Politics, 11(1): 89–117, [External LinkDOI].
de Vries, Catherine E. and Edwards, E., 2009, “Taking Europe to Its Extremes: Extremist Parties and Public Euroskepticism”, Party Politics, 15(1): 5–28, [External LinkDOI].
Downs, Anthony, 1957, An Economic Theory of Democracy, Harper, New York.
Eisinga, Rob, Franses, Philip Hans and van Dijk, Dick, 1998, “Timing of Vote Decision in First and Second Order Dutch Elections 1978–1995: Evidence from Artificial Neural Networks”, Political Analysis, 7(1): 117–142.
Elgün, Özlem and Tillman, Erik R., 2007, “Exposure to European Union Policies and Support for Membership in the Candidate Countries”, Political Research Quarterly, 60(3): 391–400.
European Commission, 2001, “European Governance: A White Paper”, Commission of the European Communities, Brussels. Online version (accessed 3 December 2010):
External Linkhttp://ec.europa.eu/governance/white_paper/.
Fauvelle-Aymar, Christine and Stegmaier, Mary, 2008, “Economic and political effects on European Parliamentary electoral turnout in post-communist Europe”, Electoral Studies, 27: 661–672, [External LinkDOI].
Ferrara, Federico and Weishaupt, J. Timo, 2004, “Get your act together: Party performance in European Parliament elections”, European Union Politics, 5(3): 283–306, [External LinkDOI].
Fiorina, Morris P., 1978, “Economic Retrospective Voting in American National Elections: A Micro-Analysis”, American Journal of Political Science, 22(2): 426–443, [External LinkDOI].
Fiorina, Morris P., 1981, Retrospective Voting in American National Elections, Yale University Press, New Haven.
Flickinger, Richard S. and Studlar, Donley T., 2007, “One Europe, many electorates? Models of turnout in European Parliament elections after 2004”, Comparative Political Studies, 40(4): 383–404, [External LinkDOI].
Føllesdal, Andreas and Hix, Simon, 2006, “Why there is a democratic deficit in the EU: A response to Majone and Moravcsik”, Journal of Common Market Studies, 44(3): 533–562.
Franklin, Mark, 2001, “How structural factors cause turnout variation at European Parliament elections”, European Union Politics, 2(3): 309–328, [External LinkDOI].
Franklin, Mark, 2007a, “Effects of Space and Time on Turnout in European Parliament Elections”, in European Elections & Domestic Politics: Lessons from the Past and Scenarios for the Future, (Eds.) van der Brug, Wouter, van der Eijk, Cees, pp. 13–32, University of Notre Dame Press, Notre Dame.
Franklin, Mark, 2007b, “Turning out or turning off? How the European Parliament Elections of 2004 shed light on turnout dynamics”, in European Elections after Eastern Enlargement: Preliminary Results from the European Election Study 2004, (Eds.) Marsh, Michael, Mikhaylov, Slava, Schmitt, Hermann, vol. 1 of The CONNEX Report Series, pp. 53–70, CONNEX, Mannheim. URL (accessed 3 December 2010):
External Linkhttp://www.connex-network.org/series/.
Franklin, Mark, van der Eijk, Cees and Oppenhuis, Erik, 1996, “The Institutional Context: Turnout”, in Choosing Europe? The European Electorate and National Politics in the Face of Union, (Eds.) van der Eijk, Cees, Franklin, Mark, pp. 306–332, University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor.
Franklin, Mark N., 2004, Voter Turnout and the Dynamics of Electoral Competition in Established Democracies Since 1945, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge; New York. [External LinkGoogle Books].
Franklin, Mark N. and Hobolt, Sara Binzer, 2010, “The Legacy of Lethargy: How Elections to the European Parliament Depress Turnout”, Electoral Studies, pp. 1–10, [External LinkDOI].
Freire, André and Teperoglou, Eftichia, 2007, “European Elections and National Politics: Lessons from the ‘New’ Southern European Democracies”, Journal of Elections, Public Opinion and Parties, 17(1): 101–122, [External LinkDOI].
Heath, Anthony, McLean, Iain, Taylor, Bridget and Curtice, John, 1999, “Between first and second order: A comparison of voting behaviour in European and local elections in Britain”, European Journal of Political Research, 35(3): 389–414, [External LinkDOI].
Hix, Simon and Lord, Christopher J., 1997, Political Parties in the European Union, The European Union Series, Macmillan, Basingstoke. [External LinkGoogle Books].
Hix, Simon and Marsh, Michael, 2007, “Punishment or protest? Understanding European Parliament elections”, Journal of Politics, 69(2): 495–510, [External LinkDOI].
Hix, Simon, Noury, Abdul and Roland, Gerard, 2006, “Dimensions of Politics in the European Parliament”, American Journal of Political Science, 50(2): 494–511, [External LinkDOI].
Hobolt, Sara Binzer, Spoon, Jae-Jae and Tilley, James, 2009, “A vote against Europe? Explaining defection at the 1999 and 2004 European Parliament elections”, British Journal of Political Science, 39: 93–115, [External LinkDOI].
Hooghe, Liesbet and Marks, Gary, 1999, “The Making of a Polity: The Struggle over European Integration”, in Continuity and Change in Contemporary Capitalism, (Eds.) Kitschelt, H., Marks, Gary, Lange, Peter, Stephens, John, pp. 70–97, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge; New York. [External LinkGoogle Books].
Hyland, James L., 1995, Democratic theory: The philosophical foundations, Manchester University Press, Manchester. [External LinkGoogle Books].
Inglehart, Ronald, 1971, “Public Opinion and European Integration”, in Regional Integration: Theory and Research, (Eds.) Lindberg, Leon N., Scheingold, Stuart A., pp. 160–191, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.
Irwin, Galen, 1995, “Second-Order or Third-Rate: Issues In The Campaign For The Elections For The European Parliament 1994”, Electoral Studies, 14(2): 183–199, [External LinkDOI].
Jesuit, David, 2003, “The Regional Dynamics of European Electoral Politics Participation in National and European Contests in the 1990s”, European Union Politics, 4(2): 139–164, [External LinkDOI].
Kiewiet, D. Roderick, 1983, Macroeconomics & Micropolitics: The Electoral Effects of Economic Issues, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Kitschelt, Herbert, Mansfeldova, Zdenka, Markowski, Radoslaw and Tóka, Gabor, 1999, Post-Communist Party Systems: Competition, Representation, and Inter-Party Cooperation, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge; New York.
Koepke, Jason R. and Ringe, Nils., 2006, “The second-order election model in an enlarged Europe”, European Union Politics, 7(3): 321–346, [External LinkDOI].
Kousser, T., 2004, “Retrospective voting and strategic behavior in European Parliament elections”, Electoral Studies, 23(1): 1–21, [External LinkDOI].
Kroh, Martin, van der Eijk, Cees and van der Brug, Wouter, 2007, “Prospects for Electoral Change”, in European Elections & Domestic Politics: Lessons from the Past and Scenarios for the Future, (Eds.) van der Brug, Wouter, van der Eijk, Cees, pp. 209–226, University of Notre Dame Press, Notre Dame.
Lewis-Beck, Michael S., 1988, Economics and Elections: The Major Western Democracies, University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, MI.
Lusoli, Wainer and Ward, Janelle, 2005, “‘Politics makes strange bedfellows’: The Internet and the 2004 European Parliament Election in Britain”, Harvard International Journal of Press/Politics, 10(4): 71–97, [External LinkDOI].
Lyons, Pat and Linek, Lukás, 2010, “Party System Nationalisation and Non-uniform Vote Switching. Evidence from the Czech Republic”, Czech Sociological Review, 46(3): 375–399.
Mair, Peter, 1997, Party System Change: Approaches and Interpretations, Oxford University Press, Oxford; New York.
Mair, Peter and Thomassen, Jacques, 2010, “Political representation and government in the European Union”, Journal of European Public Policy, 17: 20–35, [External LinkDOI].
Manow, Philip and Döring, Holger, 2008, “Electoral and Mechanical Causes of Divided Government in the European Union”, Comparative Political Studies, 41: 1349–1370.
Markowski, RadosÅ‚aw and Tucker, Joshua A., 2010, “Euroscepticism and the Emergence of Political Parties in Poland”, Party Politics, 16(Europeanisation, political parties, Poland): 523–548, [External LinkDOI].
Marsh, Michael, 1996, “Ireland: An Electorate with its Mind on Lower Things”, in Choosing Europe? The European Electorate and National Politics in the Face of Union, (Eds.) van der Eijk, Cees, Franklin, Mark, pp. 166–186, Univeristy of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor.
Marsh, Michael, 1998, “Testing the second-order election model after four European elections”, British Journal of Political Science, 28(4): 591–607, [External LinkDOI].
Marsh, Michael, 2003, “Theories of less important elections: explanations of electoral behaviour in European parliament elections”, Revue de la Maison Française d’Oxford, 1(1).
Marsh, Michael, 2005, “The Results of the 2004 European Parliament Elections and the Second-order Model”, in Europawahl 2004, (Eds.) Niedermayer, O., Schmitt, H., pp. 142–158, VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften, Wiesbaden.
Marsh, Michael, 2007, “European Parliament elections and losses by governing parties”, in European Elections & Domestic Politics: Lessons from the Past and Scenarios for the Future, (Eds.) van der Brug, Wouter, van der Eijk, Cees, pp. 51–73, University of Notre Dame Press, Notre Dame.
Marsh, Michael and Franklin, Mark, 1996, “The Foundations: Unanswered Questions from the Study of European Elections, 1979–1994”, in Choosing Europe? The European Electorate and National Politics in the Face of Union, (Eds.) van der Eijk, Cees, Franklin, Mark, pp. 11–33, University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbour. [External LinkGoogle Books].
Mather, Janet, 2001, “The United Kingdom”, in The 1999 Elections to the European Parliament, (Ed.) Lodge, Juliet, pp. 214–231, Palgrave, London.
Mattila, Mikko, 2003, “Why bother? Determinants of turnout in the European elections”, Electoral Studies, 22(3): 449–468, [External LinkDOI].
McElroy, Gail and Benoit, Kenneth, 2010, “Party Policy and Group Affiliation in the European Parliament”, British Journal of Political Science, 40: 377–398, [External LinkDOI].
Miller, W.L. and Mackie, M., 1973, “The Electoral Cycle and the Asymmetry of Government and Opposition Popularity: an alternative model of the relationship between economic conditions and political popularity”, Political Studies, 21(3): 263–279, [External LinkDOI].
Moravcsik, Andrew, 2002, “In Defence of the ‘Democratic Deficit’: Reassessing Legitimacy in the European Union”, Journal of Common Market Studies, 40(4): 603–624, [External LinkDOI].
Mueller, John E., 1970, “Presidential Popularity from Truman to Johnson”, American Political Science Review, 64(1): 18–34.
Nannestad, Peter and Paldam, Martin, 2002, “The cost of ruling: a foundation stone for two theories”, in Economic Voting, (Eds.) Dorussen, H., Taylor, M., pp. 17–44, Routledge, London; New York.
Nielsen, Hans Jorgen, 2001, “Denmark”, in The 1999 Elections to the European Parliament, (Ed.) Lodge, Juliet, pp. 60–72, Palgrave, London.
Oppenhuis, Erik, van der Eijk, Cees and Franklin, Mark, 1996, “The Party Context: Outcomes”, in Choosing Europe? The European Electorate and National Politics in the Face of Union, (Eds.) van der Eijk, Cees, Franklin, Mark, pp. 287–306, University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor.
Orford, Scott, Rallings, Colin, Thrasher, Michael and Borisyuk, Galina, 2009, “Electoral salience and the costs of voting at national, sub-national and supra-national elections in the UK: a case study of Brent, UK”, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 34(2): 195–214, [External LinkDOI].
Ortoli, François-Xavier, 1975a, “Letter, 15 January 1975”, The Times.
Ortoli, François-Xavier, 1975b, “The Sittings, 1 January 1975”, The Times.
Pacek, Alexander C. and Radcliff, Benjamin, 2003, “Voter participation and party-group fortunes in European parliament elections, 1979-1999: A cross-national analysis”, Political Research Quarterly, 56(1): 91–95.
Paldam, Martin, 1986, “The distribution of election results and the two explanations of the cost of ruling”, European Journal of Political Economy, 2(1): 5–24, [External LinkDOI].
Peter, Jochen, 2007, “Media Effects on Attitudes towards European Integration”, in European Elections & Domestic Politics: Lessons from the Past and Scenarios for the Future, (Eds.) van der Brug, Wouter, van der Eijk, Cees, pp. 131–145, University of Notre Dame Press, Notre Dame.
Peter, Jochen, Lauf, Edmund and Semetko, Holli A., 2004, “Television coverage of the 1999 European parliamentary elections”, Political Communication, 21(4): 415–433, [External LinkDOI].
Powell, G. Bingham and Whitten, Guy D., 1993, “A Cross-National Analysis of Economic Voting: Taking Account of the Political Context”, American Journal of Political Science, 37(2): 391–414, [External LinkDOI].
Rae, Douglas and Daudt, Hans, 1976, “The Ostrogorski paradox: a peculiarity of compound majority decision”, European Journal of Political Research, 4(4): 391–398, [External LinkDOI].
Rallings, Colin and Thrasher, Michael, 2005, “Not all ‘second-order’ contests are the same: Turnout and party choice at the concurrent 2004 local and European Parliament elections in England”, British Journal of Politics & International Relations, 7(4): 584–597, [External LinkDOI].
Rasmussen, Anne, 2008, “Party soldiers in a non-partisan community? Party linkage in the European Parliament”, Journal of European Public Policy, 15(8): 1164–1183, [External LinkDOI].
Ray, Leonard, 1999, “Measuring party orientations towards European integration: Results from an expert survey”, European Journal of Political Research, 36(2): 283–306, [External LinkDOI].
Reif, Karlheinz, 1984, “National Electoral Cycles and European Elections 1979 and 1984”, Electoral Studies, 3(3): 244–255, [External LinkDOI].
Reif, Karlheinz, 1985, “Ten second-order national elections”, in Ten European Elections: Campaigns and Results of the 1979/81 First Direct Elections to the European Parliament, (Ed.) Reif, K., pp. 10–44, Gower, Aldershot.
Reif, Karlheinz, 1997, “European elections as member state second-order elections revisited”, European Journal of Political Research, 31(1-2): 115–124, [External LinkDOI].
Reif, Karlheinz and Schmitt, Hermann, 1980, “Nine second-order national elections – a conceptual framework for the analysis of European election results”, European Journal of Political Research, 8(1): 3–44, [External LinkDOI].
Riker, William H., 1982, Liberalism Against Populism: A Confrontation Between the Theory of Democracy and the Theory of Social Choice, W.H. Freeman, San Francisco.
Rohrschneider, Robert and Clark, Nick, 2008, “Second-Order Elections versus First-Order Thinking: How Voters Perceive the Representation Process in a Multi-Layered System of Governance”, in Multi-level electoral systems of the European Union, (Eds.) van der Eijk, Cees, Schmitt, Hermann, vol. 4 of The CONNEX Report Series, pp. 137–162, CONNEX, Mannheim. URL (accessed 3 December 2010):
External Linkhttp://www.connex-network.org/series/.
Sanz, Alberto, 2008, “Split-Ticket Voting in Multi-Level Electoral Competition: European, National and Regional Concurrent Elections in Spain”, in Multi-level electoral systems of the European Union, (Eds.) van der Eijk, Cees, Schmitt, Hermann, vol. 4 of The CONNEX Report Series, pp. 101–136, CONNEX, Mannheim. URL (accessed 3 December 2010):
External Linkhttp://www.connex-network.org/series/.
Schattschneider, E.E. et al., 1950, “Toward a More Responsible Two-Party System: A Report of the Committee on Political Parties”, American Political Science Review, 44(3, Pt. 2). Online version (accessed 3 December 2010):
External Linkhttp://www.apsanet.org/~pop/APSA_Report.htm.
Schmitt, Hermann, 2005, “The European parliament elections of June 2004: Still second-order?”, West European Politics, 28(3): 650–679, [External LinkDOI].
Schmitt, Hermann and Mannheimer, Renato, 1991, “About Voting and Non-voting in the European Elections in June 1989”, European Journal of Political Research, 19(1): 31–54, [External LinkDOI].
Schmitt, Hermann and Thomassen, Jacques, 1999, Political Representation and Legitimacy in the European Union, Oxford University Press, Oxford; New York. [External LinkGoogle Books].
Schmitt, Hermann and van der Eijk, Cees, 2007, “Non-voting in European Parliament elections and support for European integration”, in European Elections & Domestic Politics: Lessons from the Past and Scenarios for the Future, (Eds.) van der Brug, Wouter, van der Eijk, Cees, pp. 145–167, University of Notre Dame Press, Notre Dame.
Schumpeter, Joseph A., 1943, Capitalism, Socialism, and Democracy, Allen & Unwin, London.
Schweitzer, Eva Johanna, 2009, “Europeanisation on the Internet? The Role of German Party Websites in the 2004 European Parliamentary Elections”, Observatorio, 3(3): 20–40. URL (accessed 6 December 2010):
External Linkhttp://obs.obercom.pt/.
Skrinis, Stavros and Teperoglou, Eftichia, 2008, “Studying and Comparing Second-Order Elections: Examples from Greece, Portugal and Spain”, in Multi-level electoral systems of the European Union, (Eds.) van der Eijk, Cees, Schmitt, Hermann, vol. 4 of The CONNEX Report Series, pp. 163–190, CONNEX, Mannheim. URL (accessed 3 December 2010):
External Linkhttp://www.connex-network.org/series/.
Stefanova, Boyka, 2008, “The 2007 European elections in Bulgaria and Romania”, Electoral Studies, 27: 566–571, [External LinkDOI].
Studlar, Donley, Flickinger, Richard S. and Bennett, Stephen, 2003, “Turnout in European Parliament elections: Towards a European-centred model”, Journal of Elections, Public Opinion and Parties, 13(1): 195–209.
Taggart, Paul, 1998, “A touchstone of dissent: Euroscepticism in contemporary Western European party systems”, European Journal of Political Research, 33(3): 363–388, [External LinkDOI].
Taggart, Paul and Szczerbiak, Aleks, 2004, “Contemporary Euroscepticism in the party systems of the European Union candidate states of Central and Eastern Europe”, European Journal of Political Research, 43(1): 1–27, [External LinkDOI].
Tavits, Margit, 2005, “The Development of Stable Party Support: Electoral Dynamics in Post-Communist Europe”, American Journal of Political Science, 49(2): 283–298, [External LinkDOI].
Thomassen, Jacques, 1994, “Empirical research into political representation: Failing democracy or failing models?”, in Elections at home and abroad: Essays in Honor of Warren E. Miller, (Eds.) Jennings, M. Kent, Mann, Thomas E., pp. 237–264, University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor. [External LinkGoogle Books].
Thomassen, Jacques (Ed.), 2009a, The Legitimacy of the European Union after Enlargement, Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Thomassen, Jacques, 2009b, “The legitimacy of the European Union after enlargement”, in The Legitimacy of the European Union after Enlargement, (Ed.) Thomassen, Jacques, pp. 1–20, Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Thomassen, Jacques, 2009c, “In Conclusion: The Legitimacy of the European Union after Enlargement”, in The Legitimacy of the European Union after Enlargement, (Ed.) Thomassen, Jacques, pp. 225–244, Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Thomassen, Jacques and Schmitt, Hermann, 1997, “Policy representation”, European Journal of Political Research, 32(2): 165–184, [External LinkDOI].
Tilley, James and Wlezien, Christopher, 2008, “Does Political Information Matter? An Experimental Test Relating to Party Positions on Europe”, Political Studies, 56: 192–214, [External LinkDOI].
Tilley, James, Garry, John and Bold, Tessa, 2008, “Perceptions and reality: Economic voting at the 2004 European Parliament elections”, European Journal of Political Research, 47: 665–686, [External LinkDOI].
Tillman, Erik R., 2004, “The European Union at the Ballot Box? European Integration and Voting Behavior in the New Member States”, Comparative Political Studies, 37(5): 590–610, [External LinkDOI].
Tindemans, Leo, 1975, “1975-1976 Session: Report of the Proceedings from 7 to 11 July 1975”, Official Journal of the European Communities: Debates of the European Parliament, EC Publications Office, Luxembourg.
Toka, Gabor, 2007, “Information Effects on Vote Choices in European Elections”, in European Elections after Eastern Enlargement: Preliminary Results from the European Election Study 2004, (Eds.) Marsh, Michael, Mikhaylov, Slava, Schmitt, Hermann, vol. 1 of The CONNEX Report Series, pp. 141–180, CONNEX, Mannheim. URL (accessed 3 December 2010):
External Linkhttp://www.connex-network.org/series/.
Tufte, Edward R., 1975, “Determinants of the Outcomes of Midterm Congressional Elections”, American Political Science Review, 69(3): 812–826.
van der Brug, Wouter and van der Eijk, Cees, 1999, “The Cognitive Basis of Voting”, in Political Representation and Legitimacy in the European Union, (Eds.) Schmitt, Hermann, Thomassen, Jacques, pp. 129–160, Oxford University Press, Oxford. [External LinkGoogle Books].
van der Brug, Wouter and van der Eijk, Cees (Eds.), 2007, European Elections & Domestic Politics: Lessons from the Past and Scenarios for the Future, University of Notre Dame Press, Notre Dame.
van der Brug, Wouter, van der Eijk, Cees and Franklin, Mark, 2007a, “EU support and party choice”, in European Elections & Domestic Politics: Lessons from the Past and Scenarios for the Future, (Eds.) van der Brug, Wouter, van der Eijk, Cees, pp. 168–189, University of Notre Dame Press, Notre Dame.
van der Brug, Wouter, van der Eijk, Cees, Schmitt, Hermann, Marsh, Michael, Franklin, Mark, Thomassen, Jacques, Semetko, Holli and Bartolini, Stefano, 2007b, “European Elections, Domestic Politics and European Integration”, in European Elections & Domestic Politics: Lessons from the Past and Scenarios for the Future, (Eds.) van der Brug, Wouter, van der Eijk, Cees, pp. 226–262, University of Notre Dame Press, Notre Dame.
van der Brug, Wouter, Franklin, Mark and Toka, Gabor, 2008, “One electorate or many? Differences in party preference formation between new and established European democracies”, Electoral Studies, 27: 589–600, [External LinkDOI].
van der Brug, Wouter, Franklin, Mark, Popescu, Marina and Toka, Gabor, 2009a, “Towards a European Electorate: One Electorate or Many?”, in The Legitimacy of the European Union After Enlargement, (Ed.) Thomassen, Jacques, pp. 65–93, Oxford University Press, Oxford.
van der Brug, Wouter, Hobolt, Sara Binzer and de Vreese, Claes, 2009b, “Religion and Party Choice in Europe”, West European Politics, 32: 1266–1283, [External LinkDOI].
van der Eijk, Cees, 1987, “Testing theories of electoral cycles: The case of The Netherlands”, European Journal of Political Research, 15(2): 253–270.
van der Eijk, Cees and Franklin, Mark, 1991, “European Community Politics and Electoral Representation: Evidence From the 1989 European Elections Study”, European Journal of Political Research, 19(1): 105–127.
van der Eijk, Cees and Franklin, Mark, 1996, “The research: Studying the elections of 1989 and 1994”, in Choosing Europe? The European Electorate and National Politics in the Face of Union, (Eds.) van der Eijk, Cees, Franklin, Mark, pp. 33–59, University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor.
van der Eijk, Cees and Franklin, Mark, 2007, “The Sleeping Giant: Potential for Political Mobilization of Disaffection with European Integration”, in European Elections & Domestic Politics: Lessons from the Past and Scenarios for the Future, (Eds.) van der Brug, Wouter, van der Eijk, Cees, pp. 189–209, University of Notre Dame Press, Notre Dame.
van der Eijk, Cees and van der Brug, Wouter, 2007, “Postscript”, in European Elections & Domestic Politics: Lessons from the Past and Scenarios for the Future, (Eds.) van der Brug, Wouter, van der Eijk, Cees, pp. 262–273, University of Notre Dame Press, Notre Dame.
van der Eijk, Cees and van Egmond, Marcel, 2007, “Political effects of low turnout in national and European elections”, Electoral Studies, 26(3): 561–573, [External LinkDOI].
van der Eijk, Cees, Franklin, Mark and Marsh, Michael, 1996a, “What voters teach us about Europe-wide elections: What Europe-wide elections teach us about voters”, Electoral Studies, 15 (2): 149–166.
van der Eijk, Cees, Franklin, Mark and Oppenhuis, Erik, 1996b, “The Strategic Context: Party Choice”, in Choosing Europe? The European Electorate and National Politics in the Face of Union, (Eds.) van der Eijk, Cees, Franklin, Mark, pp. 332–365, University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor. [External LinkGoogle Books].
van der Eijk, Cees, Franklin, Mark, Demant, F. and van der Brug, Wouter, 2007, “The Endogenous Economy: ‘Real’ economic conditions, subjective economic evaluations and government support”, Acta Politica, 42(1): 1–22, [External LinkDOI].
van Egmond, Marcel, 2007, “European Elections as Counterfactual National Elections”, in European Elections & Domestic Politics: Lessons from the Past and Scenarios for the Future, (Eds.) van der Brug, Wouter, van der Eijk, Cees, pp. 32–51, University of Notre Dame Press, Notre Dame.
Watson, Lord, 1975, “Letters to the Editor, 12 November 1975”, The Times.
Weber, Till, 2007, “Campaign effects and second-order cycles: A top-down approach to European Parliament elections”, European Union Politics, 8(4): 509–536, [External LinkDOI].
Worre, Toben, 1996, “Denmark: Second-order Containment”, in Choosing Europe? The European Electorate and National Politics in the Face of Union, (Eds.) van der Eijk, Cees, Franklin, Mark, pp. 97–114, University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor. [External LinkGoogle Books].
Ysmal, Colette and Cayrol, Roland, 1996, “France: The Midwife Comes to Call”, in Choosing Europe? The European Electorate and National Politics in the Face of Union, (Eds.) van der Eijk, Cees, Franklin, Mark, pp. 115–136, University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor. [External LinkGoogle Books].